Boolean Searching

Use Boolean operators and nesting to search for combinations of words or phrases. Enter Boolean operators (i.e., AND, OR, NOT) in either uppercase or lowercase.

Note: Boolean operators and nesting may be used in Free Search types

Concept Search Examples Retrieval Formula
AND rodgers AND hammerstein
children AND poverty
"civil war" AND virginia

Retrieves only records
containing both terms.
OR sixties OR 60s OR 1960s
labor OR labour
email OR e-mail OR "electronic mail"

Retrieves records containing
either one or more terms.
AND NOT caribbean AND NOT cuba
jockey AND NOT disc
"civil war" AND NOT american

Excludes records containing
the second term.
NESTING fruit AND (banana OR apple)

(women OR woman) AND basketball

((color OR colour) AND (decorate OR decoration)) AND NOT (art OR architecture)

Use parentheses ( ) to group portions of boolean queries for more complex searches.